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Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment is a robust analysis of the potential impact that the Free Trade Agreement and Investment Protection Agreement negotiated between the European Union and the Republic of India could have on the economy, social life, environment and the enjoyment of human rights in India or the EU. The assessment relies on economic modelling, literature review, statistical data analysis and continuous and wide-ranging stakeholder consultations.


Related to the impact areas, the analysis consists of four sustainability pillars: economic, social, environmental and the one related to human rights. Additionally, through case studies, the SIA provides an in-depth analysis on specific issues.

Sustainability pillars

The Trade SIA methodology consists of two equally important elements: the in-depth analysis of sustainability effects; and consultations with key stakeholders. The focus of each of the four sustainability pillars is shortly highlighted below, and also our approach on case studies is outlined.

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Economic impact

The economic impact analysis provides the starting point for the SIA because many of the effects observed in other pillars follow from the economic effects. A broad range of economic variables will be analysed using a multi-pronged approach. We look, for example, at tariff and non-tariff obstacles, FDI flows, regulatory aspects, public procurement, customs, and impact on LDCs, EU Outermost Regions and SMEs.

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Social impact

The social impact analysis focuses on an analysis of different types of potential social effects: e.g. on employment, informal sector, labour rights, working conditions, welfare, poverty, vulnerable consumer groups,  women, vulnerable groups in the society, public policies and services and uptake of CSR practices. 

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Environmental impact

The environmental impact analysis, looks at the effects of the agreements on: the interaction with MEAs, the Paris Agreement and Global Biodiversity Framework, air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, water quality and resources, land use, soil quality, waste prevention and waste management, marine litter, biodiversity, ecosystems services and protected areas. 

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Human rights impact

The human rights analysis look at the impact of the agreements on human rights as set out in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. It focuses on the pre-existing legal situation in the EU and India, pre-existing conditions of stress of vulnerability. The rights of indigenous people and rights to property and land use are core elements of the analysis. 

Case Studies

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Case studies

In addition to the sustainability pillar analyses, three case studies are carried out, focusing on the sustainability impact arising from the negotiations on the FTA and IPA agreements. They focus - mainly in a qualitative manner - on more narrow, illustrative, issues that are relevant from a sustainability angle.

Our Team

This study is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of experts led by Trade Impact B.V., a consultancy company based in the Netherlands, and other partners and subcontractors: BKP Economic Advisors, IEEP, ICRIER, CUTS and CEEW.

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